On-line Assessment

This on-line assessment presents you with 15 multiple choice questions to each of the four main chapters of the SynthLight handbook, excluding the case studies. To each of the questions, a choice of four possible answers is displayed, one of which is correct. If you 80% or more of the questions correctly, you will be sent a Certificate of Virtual Attendance in an e-mail.

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1. Fundamentals

  1. What is the wavelength band of visible radiation?
    1. 300-800 nm
    2. 380-780 nm
    3. 350-850 nm
    4. 300-750 nm
  2. What is the SI unit of photometry?
    1. candela
    2. lux
    3. lumen
    4. photon
  3. What is the solid angle of the sky?
    1. 1/2π
    2. π
  4. What is the approximate reflectance of a surface which is illuminated with 120 lx and which has a luminance of 20 cd/m²?
    1. 0.7
    2. 0.5
    3. 0.3
    4. 0.1
  5. If a light source produces an illuminance of 600lx at a distance of 2.0m, what is its luminous intensity in that direction?
    1. 150 cd
    2. 300 cd
    3. 1200 cd
    4. 2400 cd
  6. What is the luminous flux of an isotropic light source that produces an illuminance of 150 lx at a distance of 2.0m?
    1. 942 lm
    2. 1884 lm
    3. 3768 lm
    4. 7536 lm
  7. What is the solid angle under which a computer screen is seen by a user sitting 0.5m away? The visible size of the monitor is 0.5m²
    1. 0.25 sr
    2. 0.5 sr
    3. 1.0 sr
    4. 2.0 sr
  8. A semi-transparent material has an absorptance of 0.2 of the light and a transmittance of 0.6. What is its reflectance?
    1. 0.2
    2. 0.3
    3. 0.4
    4. 0.6
  9. What is the highest possible colour rendering index?
    1. 1
    2. 10
    3. 100
    4. 1000
  10. Which one of the following is not a colour system?
    1. XYZ
    2. RGB
    3. DIN
    4. L*a*b*
  11. What causes the blind spot in the eye?
    1. Optic nerve
    2. Attachment of eyeball to socket
    3. This where the image of the black pupil is formed.
    4. Part of the lens is not transparent
  12. Where does the v(λ) curve for photopic vision peak?
    1. 475nm
    2. 505nm
    3. 555nm
    4. 590nm
  13. Why are there much more men than women who are red-green colour deficient
    1. The colour sensitive dye is affected by the male hormone Androstenedione.
    2. Men don't eat carrots and spinach, so it doesn't matter.
    3. The colour sensitive dye wears out by staring at intense light sources, such as traffic lights.
    4. The gene for colour vision sits on the X chromosome which exists twice as often in women than it does in men.
  14. A video projector generates the full-colour image with three separete beamers for Red, Green, and Blue. If the green lamp fails, what colour can it still produce?
    1. white
    2. yellow
    3. cyan
    4. magenta
  15. Which one of the following is not an age-related degeneration of the eye?
    1. menopause
    2. glaucoma
    3. presbyopia
    4. cataract

2. Daylighting

  1. Choose a method to increase the perimeter zone of a building during the design stage:
    1. Change the orientation
    2. Lower the window head
    3. Increase roof reflectance
    4. Change the building's footprint
  2. Under completely overcast sky conditions which part of the sky is the brightest?
    1. Near the horizon
    2. Near the position of the sun
    3. Near zenith
    4. No matter
  3. How would you increase the daylight uniformity in a sidelit room?
    1. By painting all wall surfaces white
    2. By decreasing the window width
    3. By using clear double glazing instead of clear single glazing
    4. By increasing the room depth
  4. If the window head is increased then:
    1. You are more likely to use artificial lighting
    2. Daylight penetration is increased
    3. No change in daylight levels
    4. Daylight factors are decreased
  5. Which is the definition of daylight factor?
    1. The ratio of internal to external vertical illumination
    2. The ratio of interior illumination to exterior horizontal illumination under standard clear sky conditions
    3. The ratio of interior illumination to exterior horizontal illumination under standard overcast sky conditions
    4. The absolute illumination value on the working surface under overcast sky conditions.
  6. Which has the greatest impact in daylight levels in a common sidelit room under an overcast sky?
    1. The reflectance of the ceiling
    2. The reflectance of the floor
    3. The reflectance of the walls
    4. All of the above have an equal impact
  7. What is not a potential benefit of an innovative daylighting system?
    1. Increase in illuminance levels
    2. Increase of daylight factors
    3. Improved aesthetics
    4. Allows you ignore good window design
  8. Estimate the approximate window area needed to achieve an average daylight factor of 3% in a room with dimensions: 7 m (lenght) x 5 m (width) x 3 m (height). All surfaces are grey with a reflectance of 0.5, while glazing with 71% transmittance will be used. No obstruction is present.
    1. 2 m²
    2. 5 m²
    3. 10 m²
    4. 20 m²
  9. A daylight design based on overcast sky conditions is different than that based on clear sky. Why is that?
    1. Completely different sky luminance distribution.
    2. Actually there is no difference
    3. Because the color of the sky is different
    4. A clear sky is always brighter than an overcast one.
  10. Which one is not a potential advantage of roof lighting ?
    1. Uniformity is achieved more easily
    2. Increased light levels
    3. Lower risk of glare
    4. No need for shading
  11. Is a fixed prismatic glazing suitable for any orientation and all times of the year?
    1. It is case depended. The redirection properties are applied (in the case of a non movable system) is a certain range of sun positions. If movable the range is extended.
    2. Yes
    3. No, it can only block the sun rays during winter when the sun is in low altitude
    4. No, it can only block the sun rays during summer when the sun is in high altitude
  12. What improves the performance of a hollow light pipe?
    1. The inside is painted black
    2. The inside is painted grey
    3. The inside is painted white
    4. The inside is highly specular
  13. What are the potential benefits of spectrally selective glazing?
    1. Gold colour
    2. High solar gains in winter, low solar gains in summer
    3. Change of transmittance according to temperature
    4. For the same solar transmittance they may permit more visible radiation
  14. What are artificial skies used for?
    1. To estimate solar heat gains through windows
    2. To perform daylight measurements based on overcast skies
    3. To estimate the peak cooling load
    4. To evaluate glare from sun patches
  15. As a rule of thumb, what should be the illuminance ratio between the front and the back half of a sidelit room?
    1. 3/1
    2. 5/1
    3. 10/1
    4. 1/10

3. Artificial Lighting

  1. Compared to a traditional incandescent lamp, a halogen lamp with the same wattage...
    1. has a lower colour temperature
    2. has a higher luminous efficacy and longer life
    3. has a lower luminous efficacy and longer life
    4. produces the same luminous flux but is smaller
  2. Compared to a high voltage halogen lamp, a low voltage halogen lamp with the same wattage...
    1. has a higher luminous efficacy, smaller bulb dimension and longer life
    2. has a lower colour rendering index
    3. has a higher luminous efficacy, bigger bulb dimension and longer life
    4. doesn't require a ballast or transformer when plugged into the mains
  3. What is the typical light flux of a low voltage 100W halogen lamp
    1. 500 lm
    2. 2000 lm
    3. 5000 lm
    4. 10000 lm
  4. What is the expected life time of a typical tungsten filament lamp:
    1. 100 hrs
    2. 500 hrs
    3. 1000 hrs
    4. 2000 hrs
  5. In order to achieve higher energy savings with a fluorescent lamp it is better
    1. to use low power lamps
    2. to use a high frequency ballast (25000 Hz or more)
    3. to use a conventional ballast (50 Hz)
    4. not to use a ballast
  6. What is the lamp with the highest luminous efficacy that is commercial available at the moment?
    1. High-pressure sodium lamp
    2. Low-pressure sodium lamp
    3. Metal-halide lamp
    4. LED
  7. Which is not a problem with the use of white LEDs in ambient lighting?
    1. Their low efficacy
    2. Their low flux per LED and the poor colour rendering index
    3. Their limited range of available colours
    4. Their small dimensions
  8. How many 1W white LEDs of an efficacy of 20 lm/W are required to replace the light flux of a fluorescent lamp T5 high efficiency 35W?
    1. 35
    2. 70
    3. 180
    4. 330
  9. What is the luminaire efficiency defined as?
    1. the ratio between the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire and the one emitted by the light source inside it
    2. the ratio between the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire and the electrical power absorbed
    3. an index of the time-life of the luminaire
    4. the ratio between the electrical power absorbed and the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire
  10. Direct glare does not depend on
    1. the luminance of the luminous surfaces seen by the observer
    2. the position of the luminaire in the field of view
    3. the correlated colour temperature (CCT) and the colour rendering index (CRI) of the light source
    4. the power rating of the used lamp
  11. To avoid direct glare it is not useful
    1. to change the position of the luminaire in relation to the observer
    2. to increase the luminance of the light source
    3. to install baffles or louvres
    4. to decrease the luminance of the light source
  12. For a perfectly diffuse material
    1. the luminous intensity distribution of the reflected light is constant over all angles
    2. no reflection is possible
    3. the luminance of the surface is constant over all angles
    4. the luminance is not depending on the illuminance of the surface
  13. For a better visual environment in an office with VDUs (black on white display) the luminance of the surrounding zone should be:
    1. 1/50 to 1/15 of the luminance of the task area
    2. 1/15 to 1/3 of the luminance of the task area
    3. 1/3 to 3 times the luminance of the task area
    4. 3 to 10 times the luminance of the task area
  14. The correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a light source is defined as:
    1. the temperature inside the light source that guarantees a determined colour effect
    2. the temperature of a black body that would generate a light with a colour similar to that of the given light source
    3. the colour effect of the light source in relation to the perceived thermal sensation (higher CCT warmer light, lower CCT colder light)
    4. the colour of the illuminated task area
  15. In a typical building the most relevant cost concerning lighting is:
    1. the initial cost (equipment, installation, wiring, etc.)
    2. the maintenance cost (relamping, reballasting, cleaning, etc.)
    3. the energy cost (electric bill)
    4. the planing cost

4. Integration of Artificial Lighting and Daylighting

  1. When is a centralised control system used?
    1. When individual control is needed
    2. When large areas of the building are controlled on the same schedule
    3. When the electric lighting system consists of only fluorescent lamps with electronic ballast
    4. When a reduction in the installation costs is required.
  2. Which types of occupancy sensors do not exist?
    1. Infrared
    2. Ultrasonic
    3. Acoustic
    4. Gyroscopic
  3. What are not advantages of the electronic ballast?
    1. Lower energy consumption
    2. Increased lamp life
    3. Less noise
    4. High initial cost
  4. What is not a criteria for good lighting control?
    1. The use of building
    2. The working hours schedule
    3. The lighting system
    4. The average wall reflectance
  5. What is not a reason for choosing switching rather than dimming controls in the perimeter zone near the window?
    1. Daylight usually in excess of the design illuminance
    2. Cheaper
    3. Works with any lamp type
    4. Occupancy pattern
  6. What is the reason for adopting the lumen maintenance control strategy?
    1. The maintenance illuminance coincides with the design illuminance
    2. Reduced energy consumption by more than 50%
    3. Improved uniformity
    4. To discard cleaning strategy
  7. Why is it advisable to divide a space into different control zones?
    1. To reduce the number of fittings required
    2. To reduce maintenance costs
    3. To homogenise areas with the same daylighting characteristics for using different control strategies
    4. To reduce glare problems
  8. Would you install an occupancy sensor near the door facing the entrance?
    1. No, due to frequent unnecessary activation
    2. Yes, if incandescent lamps are used
    3. No, since the sensor's field of view should not cover the whole room area
    4. Yes, there is not any placement restriction related to occupancy sensors
  9. Given a rectangular room of length H with a window on the shorter wall, at what distance from the window should a photosensor for a daylight linked system be installed?
    1. 0.25 H
    2. 0.50 H
    3. 0.75 H
    4. 0.90 H
  10. In an open-loop control system, the sensor is always located...
    1. At the exterior of the control zone
    2. Inside the control zone facing down
    3. Inside the control zone facing the luminaires
    4. Inside the control zone facing the ceiling
  11. Which of the following room types will benefit the most from an occupancy sensor for energy reduction?
    1. Private office
    2. Class room
    3. Rest room
    4. Storage area
  12. What is the scheduling control strategy?
    1. Control of the lighting system according to a predefined occupancy schedule
    2. Control of the lighting system with occupancy sensors
    3. Control of the lighting system with daylight sensing
    4. Control of the lighting system with manual controls.
  13. What is the most preferable control strategy for a small office (2 persons) without windows in terms of energy consumption?
    1. Time scheduling
    2. No control
    3. Occupancy sensors
    4. Daylight control
  14. Which of the following lamp types can not be dimmed from 0 to 100%?
    1. LEDs
    2. Metal halides
    3. Incandescent lamps
    4. Fluorescents with HF ballast
  15. A daylight linked lighting system utilising uplighters is going to be installed in an office. What is the best position of the sensor?
    1. At the ceiling facing down
    2. In the room next door
    3. Just below the luminaires' suspension height, facing down
    4. This can not be achieved with uplighters

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